Start the hearing

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Judge

The official of the State who administers justice. When directing court hearings and hearing cases, the judge shall be independent and abide only by law. (1) Having examined the case, the judge shall render a decision where he/she shall satisfy or dismiss the complaint submitted by the applicant regarding the actions or legal acts adopted by the respondent (in administrative cases). (2) Having examined the case, the judge shall render a decision where an administratively liable person shall be held liable for the commission of an administrative offence and an administrative penalty (a fine, community service or arrest) shall be imposed or where it shall be held that the person has not committed an administrative offence (in the cases regarding administrative offences). (3) Having examined the case, the judge shall render a judgment on behalf of the Republic of Lithuania where it shall be held that the accused is guilty of having committed a criminal offence and a sentence shall be imposed or the accused shall be acquitted (in criminal cases).

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Witness

The person who has information about the circumstances relevant for the case heard at court. The person summoned to the court to testify must appear at court and give a true account of all the circumstances which are known to him/her and are related to the case. A witness may refuse to testify only if the information is related to himself/herself, his family members or close relatives. The law provides for certain cases when a person cannot testify at court, for example, testimony may not be given by persons who have mental disorders, also priests who have become aware of certain circumstances during confession, etc.

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Student

and other persons not involved in the proceedings may arrive at any time to observe a court hearing. Whereas the majority of hearings are open, they may be observed without any special permission by any persons who are older than 16 years old. If a hearing is not open, this is noted in the schedule of court hearings. 

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Claimant

The person who believes that his/her rights have been breached and applies to court with a statement of claim in order to protect his/her interests. A claimant may be represented at court by a professional lawyer – an advocate who can help him/her defend his/her violated rights. 

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Respondent

The person who is, in the opinion of the claimant, responsible for the violations stated by the claimant or for the satisfactions of the claims asserted. It can be an institution, agency, service or a civil servant whose legal acts or actions are complained about by the applicant. The respondent may be represented at court by a professional lawyer – an advocate to assist him/her in protecting his/her interests and defend against the claims asserted by the claimant.

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Advocate

A professional lawyer who assists the person he/she represents (the applicant or the respondent; the accused or the victim) in defending his/her legitimate interests. (1) When authorised, an advocate may prepare the documents necessary, submit them to court on behalf of the person he/she represents, assist the client in defending his/her legitimate interests during a court hearing and carry out other actions related to the case heard at court. (2) When authorised, an advocate may prepare the documents necessary, submit them to court on behalf of the client, assist the client in the defence against the charges (in case of the accused) or protect his/her interests (in case of a victim) during the trial and carry out other actions related to the case heard at court.

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Court clerk

An employee of the court who helps the judge organise a court hearing, records it course – switches on audio recording devices and makes the record of the hearing. The record captures the course of the hearing and the substance of the statements of the parties to the proceedings. 

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Student

and other persons not involved in the proceedings may arrive at any time to observe a court hearing. Whereas the majority of hearings are open, they may be observed without any special permission by any persons who are older than 16 years old. If a hearing is not open, this is noted in the schedule of court hearings.